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Food and Nutrition at Risk in America: Food Insecurity, Biotechnology, Food Safety and Bioterrorism

Author(s): Sari Edelstein, PhD, RDN, Professor, Retired, Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Simmons College
Bonnie Gerald, PhD, Department of Nutrition and Food Systems, University of Southern Mississippi
Tamara Crutchley Bushell, PhD, Microbiology Department, University of Alabama, Birmingham
Craig Gundersen, PhD, Human Development and Family Studies Department, Iowa State University
  • ISBN-13: 9780763754082
  • Paperback    315 pages      © 2009
Price: $161.95 US List
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Food and Nutrition at Risk in America addresses the major food and nutrition issues of our time. Each section of this text covers the latest threats to our nation’s food systems from the likelihood that our food supply may become tainted to food insecurity within our borders to crop manipulation’s effects on health. This thought-provoking new text offers readers the opportunity to consider the current status of food insecurity, biotechnology, food safety, and bioterrorism in America as well as the types of assistance and policies needed in the future to ensure the health and welfare of our people.

Key Features

  • Learning Objectives presented in each chapter.
  • Key Terms introduce the reader to terms and concepts discussed in each section.
  • Issues to Debate provide timely topics for debate and further discussion.
  • Online instructor resources including an Instructor's Manual and PowerPoint Lecture Slides facilitate course instruction. (Contact your Publisher's Representative to be notified as these resources become available.)


List of Tables

List of Figures

Chapter 1: Is Our Food Safe?

Sari Edelstein, PhD, RD

            Food Safety

            Biotechnology and Genetically Modified Foods

            Food Insecurity



Section 1:  Food Safety and Biotechnology

Chapter 2: Foodborne-Illness Causing Pathogens 

Bonnie Gerald, PhD, DTR

            Types of Pathogens: Bacteria

                        • Bacterial Infections: Listeria monocytogenes

                        • Bacterial Infections: Salmonella spp.

                        • Bacterial Infections: Shigella spp.

                        • Bacterial Infections: Streptococcus pyogenes

                        • Bacterial Infections: Yersenia enterocolitica

                        • Bacterial Infections: Clostridium botulinum  

                        • Bacterial Infections: Clostridium perfringens

                        • Bacterial Infections: Bacillus cereus

                        • Bacterial Infections: Staylococccus aureus

                        • Bacterial Infections: Escherichia coli

                        • Bacterial Infections: Campylobacter jejuni

                        • Bacterial Infections: Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus

            Types of Pathogens: Virus

                        • Viral Gastroenteritis: Norovirus

                        • Viral Gastroenteritis: Rotavirus

                        • Viral Gastroenteritis: Hepatitus A (HAV)

            Types of Pathogens: Parasites

                        • Parasitic roundworms: Trichinella sprialis

                        • Parasitic roundworms: Anissakis simplex and Psuedoterranova dicipiens

                        • Parasitic protozoa: Giardia lamblia

                        • Parasitic protozoa: Crytosporidium parvum

                        • Parasitic protozoa: Cyclospora cayetanensis

                        • Parasitic protozoa: Toxoplasma gondii

            Emerging Pathogens

                        • Emerging Pathogens: Avian influenza

                        • Emerging Pathogens: Brainerd diarrhea


Chapter 3: Safety Issues in the US Food System

Bonnie Gerald, PhD, DTR

            The Food System: Climate

            The Food System: Soil

            The Food System: Water

            The Food System: Animals and Fish

            The Food System: Plants

            The Food System: Fungi

            The Food System: Raw Ingredient to Food


Chapter 4: Food Safety Regulations and Programs

Bonnie L. Gerald, PhD, DTR

            Traditional Inspection and Recalls

                        • Recalls

                        • Food Safety Controls

                        • Food Safety Management Systems

                        • Import Regulations

                        • Private Food Standards


Chapter 5: Future Food Safety Initiatives and Biotechnology

Bonnie L. Gerald, PhD, DTR

            Farm-to-Fork System

                        • Transparency

            Public and Private Initiatives

            Primary Packaging Initiatives

                        • Packaging – Passive  

                        • Packaging – Active

            Other Food Safety Processing Methods

                         • Edible Coatings

                        • Thermal Processing 

                        • Irradiation

                        • Nanotechnology 


            National and International Food Safety Initiatives


Section 2: Food Insecurity    

Chapter 6: The Measurement of Food Insecurity in the United States

Craig Gundersen, PhD


                        • History of the Measurement of Food Insecurity

            The Measurement of Food Insecurity

                        • Food Insecurity in the United States

            Measuring the Extent, Depth, and Severity of Food Insecurity in the United States


Chapter 7: The Determinants of Food Insecurity in the United States

Craig Gundersen, PhD

            Characteristics of the Food Insecure in the United States

            Determinants of Food Insecurity in the United States

                        • Dynamic Determinants of Food Insecurity

                        • State-level Determinants of Food Insecurity

                        • Effects of Income and Work Changes on Food Insecurity

                        • Social Capital and Food Insecurity

                        • Food Insecurity among the Homeless

                        • Food Insecurity among Pregnant Woman

                        • Determinants of Food Insecurity among the Elderly


Chapter 8: The Consequences of Food Insecurity in the United States

Craig Gundersen, Ph.D.

            Descriptions of the Differences in Health Outcomes by Food Insecurity Status for Children in the United States

            Studies of the Consequences of Food Insecurity in the United States

                        • Dietary Intakes by Food Insecurity Status

                        • Effects of Food Insecurity on Birth Outcomes

                        • Effects of Food Insecurity on Child Health Outcomes   

                        • Effects of Food Insecurity on Depression and Anxiety

                        • Food Insecurity and Child Behaviors

            Is there a Relationship between Food Insecurity and Childhood Obesity?


Chapter 9: Food Assistance Programs in the United States

Craig Gundersen, PhD

            Food Stamp Program

                        • History

                        • Eligibility Criteria

                        • Non-Participation by Eligible Persons

            The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC)

                        • History

                        • Eligibility Criteria

                        • Research on the Benefits of WIC

            National School Lunch Program

                         • History

                        • Eligibility Criteria

            National School Breakfast Program

                        • History

                         • Eligibility Criteria

            The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP)

                        • History

                        • Eligibility Criteria


Section 3:  Food and Bioterrorism

Chapter 10: Intentional and Unintentional Contamination of the Food Supply

Tamara Crutchley Bushell, PhD

              Key Vulnerabilities in the Food Supply

                      • Recognition of Foodborne Illnesses Associated with Intentional Contamination Cases of Intentional Contamination Involving Food Items in the U.S.

                      • Intentional Acts of Contamination Perpetrated by Two or More Individuals

                      • Intentional Acts of Contamination Perpetrated by One Individual

                      • Intentional Acts of Contamination by Unknown Perpetrator(s)

                      • Naturally-Occurring Foodborne Disease in the United States

                      • Reporting of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks (FBDOs) in the United States

                      • Foodborne Disease Outbreaks (FBDO) Caused by Unintentional Contamination

                      • FBDOs in the United States Between 1983 and 2006


Chapter 11: Key Issues Associated with Foodborne Disease Outbreaks

Tamara Crutchley Bushell, PhD

              Food Safety Begins on the Farm

                      • Significance of Pathogen Carriage in Livestock, Poultry, and Crops

                      • Significance of Pathogen Carriage in Crops

                      • Antimicrobial Resistance

             Globalization of the Food Supply

                      • Fresh Produce and Globalization

                      • Fish/Seafood and Globalization

             Federal Oversight of Surveillance and Regulatory Control

                      • Federal Oversight

                      • Regulatory Enforcement Authority

                      • Federal Expenditures on Food Safety Activities

                      • Surveillance

                      • Federal Recall Authority


Chapter 12: Principles and Application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points

Tamara Crutchley Bushell, Ph.D.

              The Seven HACCP Principles

                      • Guidelines for the Application of the HACCP System

                      • Logic Sequence for Application of HACCP

                      • HACCP and Regulatory Agencies

               The USDA and HACCP

               The FDA and HACCP

                      • Juice HACCP

                      • Seafood HACCP

                      • International HACCP Alliance

              The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO)


Chapter 13: US Food Safety and Bioterrorism

Tamara Crutchley Bushell, PhD

             What Government Agencies are doing to Improve Food Safety

             What Academic Institutions are doing to Improve Food Safety

             What the Food Industry is doing to Improve Food Safety



1: Developing a Food Defense Plan; USDA/Food Safety and Inspection Service

2: Food Protection Plan; FDA/US Department of Health and Human Services

3: HACCP Guidelines; FDA/US Department of Health and Human Services


Sari Edelstein, PhD, RDN-Professor, Retired, Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Simmons College

Dr. Edelstein is currently retired.  Her previous position was of Associate Professor in the Nutrition and Dietetics Department at Simmons College. She taught both Food Science and Food service classes.  Before coming to Simmons College, Dr. Edelstein has previously been in private practice and has served as a hospital Food Service Director and Chief Dietitian.

She is the author of many research articles, inclusive of topics on ethics, yoga, the glycemic index, and athletic performance as well as the author or editor of books, which include:
The Healthy Young Child, Wadsworth Publishing, 1995;
Nutrition in Public Health, Second Edition, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2005;
Nutrition: Rapid References for Nurses, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2007;
Managing Food and Nutrition Services for the Hospitality, Culinary and Nutrition Professions, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2007;
Life Cycle Nutrition: An Evidence-Based Approach, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2008.

Education Background
BS Florida State University
MS Florida International University
PhD University of Florida

Additional Titles by this Author

Bonnie Gerald, PhD-Department of Nutrition and Food Systems, University of Southern Mississippi

Bonnie Gerald, PhD, DTR is presently a professor at Louisiana Tech University and has written many research publications. Included in her published work is the position paper for The American Dietetic Association for which her book section is about. The article citation is: Gerald, B.L., and Perkin, J.F. (2003) Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and water safety. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(9), 1203-1218.

Tamara Crutchley Bushell, PhD-Microbiology Department, University of Alabama, Birmingham

Tamara Crutchley Bushell, PhD, is in the Molecular and Genetic Bioinformatics Facility in the department of Microbiology at the University of Alabama, Birmingham.

Craig Gundersen, PhD-Human Development and Family Studies Department, Iowa State University

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ISBN-13: 9780763754082

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